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We present results from a new representative telephonic survey, which confirms persistence of conservative gender and caste attitudes. In particular, we find that high proportions of men and women in all of the social groups we study disapprove of women working outside the home, say that it is acceptable for husbands to beat their wives, and would object to relatives marrying a Dalit person. By analyzing data from the National Family Health Survey and the India Human Development Survey, we see that the outcomes associated with these attitudes are even more conservative: a smaller fraction of women work than those who say it is acceptable, a larger fraction of women experience violence in marriage than men who say it is acceptable, and an even smaller fraction of people have intercaste marriages than people who say they would not oppose. With a few exceptions, the attitudes and outcomes we study vary surprisingly little by respondent gender, caste, and religion. Dr. Amdebkar’s legacy is indeed unfinished – people from all backgrounds must continue to work for the equality and dignity of women and Dalits.
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